[cr-india] From Wikipedia... CR in India

Frederick FN Noronha * फ्रेड्रिक न Frederick FN Noronha * फ्रेड्रिक न
Tue Jun 11 16:15:23 CDT 2013

Pls improve the content there if you can:


In India <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India> the campaign to legitimise
community radio began in the mid-1990s, soon after the Supreme Court of
India <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_India> ruled in its
judgment of February 1995 that "airwaves are public
[*dead link <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>*] This
inspired groups across the country; however, only educational (campus)
radio stations were originally permitted (under a number of conditions).

the oldest radio of uttarakhand is Henvalvani fm 90.4 MHz which is stuated
in chamba tehri garhwal The roots of Henvalvani Community Radio, Chamba,
were laid in September 2001 when a group of young rural youth came together
in an attempt to find a distinct voice of their own. The Himalaya Trust, an
NGO based in Dehradun conducted a radio training with the group, teaching
them basics of recordings, specially focused on highlighting the needs of
their local communities. For the groups members, making topical programs
and airing them back in the hill villages in their vicinity was a first
step towards an information revolution, and they have never looked back
since. Not having any steady platform to air back their programs from,
initially Henvalvani (or the voice of Henval, a name derived from the
valley where the initiative is located) used to narrowcast its programs,
its members traveling from village to village encouraging people to come
and listen, contribute or join in the discussions. Recently, Henvalvani has
also begun to broadcast some of its programs on satellite radio World Space
(Asiadev channel) and has distributed digital radio sets to some villages
in an attempt to build steady listenership (this was done through
collaboration with another development agency). The All India Radio,
Najibabad has also aired some of their community- based programs, thus
ensuring a larger reach to the group. In 2006, Henvalvani set up its own
low cost studio in Chamba and today about twelve young members work out of
this space. Since its inception, Henvalvani has worked on various kinds of
programs, all contextual and community centric in nature like awareness
campaigns, programs promoting local talents or documenting traditional
practices, environmental history and people’s movements in the valley,
health capsules, stories of migration to the cities and so on. In
partnership with a local NGO of the area, ASTHA, Henvalvani has also
organized community melas and youth programs, in an attempt to bring
together diverse voices of the hills on one common platform. Its members
have participated in several trainings and meetings on community media in
and outside of India. Committed to spreading the community media movement
in the country, some of its members have also shared their own skills and
knowledge with communities elsewhere by conducting trainings and workshops
for other radio enthusiasts. this is broadcasting in garhwali language and
3march 2012 it is broadcast fast programme it is working since 2001 and it
have many progrmme

Anna FM was India's first campus "community" radio station. Launched on 1
February 2004, it is run by the Education and Multimedia Research Centre
(EM²RC); all programmes are produced by Media Science students at Anna
University <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_University>.

On 16 November 2006, the government of India implemented new Community
Radio Guidelines,[14]<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_radio#cite_note-14>which
NGOs <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGOs> and other civil organizations to
own and operate community radio stations. About 4,000 community radio
licenses are being offered across India, according to government sources.
By 30 November 2008, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the
Government of India had received 297 applications for community radio
licenses (including 141 from NGOs and other civil organizations, 105 from
educational institutions and 51 for "farm radio" stations to be run by
agricultural universities and agricultural extension centers, or *Krishi
Vigyan Kendras*). Of these, 107 community radio stations have been cleared
for licensing through the issuance of Letters of Intent. 13 Grant of
Permission Agreements (GOPA) have been signed with license applicants under
the new plan.

By 30 November 2008, there were 38 operational community radio stations in
the country. Of these, two are run by NGOs and the rest by educational
institutions. The first community-based radio station licensed to an NGO
(as distinct from campus-based radio) was launched on 15 October 2008,
when Sangham
Radio <http://edaa.in/content-bank/cr-station-spotlight/sangham-radio>[*dead
link <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot>*] in Pastapur
village, Medak district, Andhra
Pradesh<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh>state went on the
air at 11:00 am. Sangham Radio, which broadcasts on
90.4 MHz, is licensed to the Deccan Development Society (DDS) (an NGO which
works with women's groups in approximately 75 villages in Andhra Pradesh).
The community radio station is managed by General and Algole Narsamma. The
second NGO-led community radio station in India was launched on 23 October
2008 at Taragram in Orchha, Madhya
Pradesh<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhya_Pradesh>state. Named Radio
Bundelkhand <http://edaa.in/Members/Radio_Bundelkhand>[*dead
*] after the Bundelkhand region of central India where it is located, the
radio station is licensed to the Society for Development Alternatives (DA)
(a Delhi-based NGO). Radio Bundelkhand also broadcasts on 90.4 MHz for four
hours a day (including two hours of repeat broadcasts). Radio Namaskar, the
first Community Radio of Odisha (India) established at KONARK (
Internationally renowned tourist place for Sun Temple) to make the common
people informative & active participant of the community development
process.Started its broadcasting on 12, Feb,2010.Radio Namaskar is
established by Young India, a civil society organisation formed by some
National Youth Awardees, Indira Gandhi NSS Awardees & Ex- NSS volunteers
those are committed to the cause of social transformation & development.(

According to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 47 community
radio stations were operational in India by 1 November 2009 (including 45
campus-based stations and two CRS run by NGOs). By December 2009, the
number of CR stations run by civil groups had increased to seven:

   - Sangham Radio (Pastapur, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh)
   - Radio Bundelkhand (Orchha, Madhya Pradesh)
   - Mann Deshi Tarang (Satara, Maharashtra)
   - Namma Dhwani (Budikote, Karnataka)
   - Radio Mattoli (Wayanad, Kerala)
   - Kalanjiam Samuga Vanoli (Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu)
   - Barefoot (Tilonia, Rajasthan)

By 4 December 2009, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had issued
Grant of Permission Agreements (GOPA) for 62 community radio stations. Most
of the GOPAs were issued to educational institutions.

The Society for Development Alternatives, a Delhi based NGO, received its
Wireless Operating License on 31 July 2008 (for a Nomad 50 Watt FM
transmitter, the NIN100) and began test transmissions on 15 August. Their
CR station is located in the NGO’s Taragram campus, Orchha, Bundelkhand
(Tikamgarh District, Madhya Pradesh), some 12 kilometres from Jhansi. The
CRS, which broadcasts on 90.4 MHz, was inaugurated on 23 October 2008 at
11.35am by a community worker, Prabha.

'Gurgaon ki Awaaz' (The Voice of Gurgaon) received its Letter of Intent in
July 2008, signed their GOPA in August 2009 and started broadcasting on 19
November 2009. Based in Gurgaon (which, though in the state of Haryana is
considered a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi), GKA is the
first and so far only civil-society-led community radio station in Delhi
NCR. Gurgaon ki Awaaz broadcasts 24X7, in Hindi and Haryanvi.

Community Radio Sarang
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_Radio_Sarang>on 107.8 is
managed by the Mangalore Jesuit Educational Society (MJES) and
run by St. Aloysius College, Mangalore (a coastal town in southern
Karnataka). Radio Sarang is a campus radio station but is oriented towards
local communities as well. It broadcasts in Konkani, Kannada, Tulu, and
English daily, and in Malayalam, Beary (the mother tongue of local Muslims)
and Hindi on a weekly basis. It also broadcasts in Punjabi, by request of
the local Sikh community. Since 15 June 2010, the CR station broadcasts 14
hours a day from 6:30 to 20:30. Richard Rego, SJ is founder and director of
the station.

Banasthali Radio was the first campus-based CR station licensed in the
state of Rajasthan, primarily covering the north-eastern part of Tonk
district. Banasthali Radio has been operating since January 2005 as a
campus radio station for students. The transmission reaches 50 villages
surrounding the campus.

To create a common platform for the local communities of Supi in
TERI <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Energy_and_Resources_Institute>launched
*Kumaon vani* (a community radio service) on 11 March 2010. Uttarakhand
Governor Margaret Alva
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Alva>inaugurated the community
radio station, the first in the state.
*Kumaon Vani* airs programmes on the environment, agriculture, culture,
weather and education in the local language and with the active
participation of the communities. The station covers a radius of 10 km,
reaching an audience of almost 2,000 around
.[15] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_radio#cite_note-15>

Licensed to the Tibetan Children’s Village School in Dharamsala, Kangra
(Himachal Pradesh), Radio Tashi Delek 90.4 FM is believed to be the first
licensed community radio station in the Indian Himalayan Region. The
Tibetan Community Radio Station was inaugurated by the Dalai Lama on 1 June
2010. Tashi Delek broadcasts from the Tibetan Children's Village (TCV) in
Dharamsala, serving the Tibetan, Indian and expatriate communities of the
region with music and local information.

*Jnan Taranga <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnan_Taranga>* (90.4 FM), the
first community radio service in the North East of India, began regular
broadcasts on 20 November 2010. The campus-based station, licensed to
Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University, Guwahati, Assam, aired its
first programme on 28 January 2009 as an experimental broadcast. *Jnan
Taranga* literally means "knowledge wave".

Radio Sharda, launched on 6 Dec 2011, is the first community radio station
in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. It broadcasts in Kashmiri and Hindustani
on 90.4 MHz in Jammu (Buta Nagar) and is billed as “a community radio for
the displaced people of Kashmir” (i.e., Kashmiri Pandits). It is licensed
to Pir Panchal, a civil society organization.

Radio Ujjas, licensed to Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan (Kutch Women's
Development Organization) is probably India's first community radio station
close to its international border. It began test transmission at around
6.30pm on 10 Mar 2012. KMVS has been broadcasting its flagship Kutchi
language programme, 'Kunjan Paanje Kutch Ji’ (Sarus Crane of our Kutch)
from AIR Bhuj since 16 Dec 1999. Radio Ujjas is located in Bhimsar village
in Nakhatrana Taluk <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakhatrana_Taluk>, Kutch
District of Gujarat, close to the Pakistan border. They applied for a CR
license in 2007.

Under the 2006 community radio policy, any not-for-profit "legal
entity"—except individuals, political parties (and their affiliates),
criminal and banned organizations—can apply for a CR license. Central
funding is not available for such stations, and there are stringent
restrictions on fundraising from other sources. Only organisations which
have been registered for a minimum of three years old and with a proven
track record of local community service may apply. License conditions
implicitly favour well-funded stations over inexpensive low-power
operations, several of which (Mana Radio in Andhra Pradesh and Raghav FM in
Bihar <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bihar>, for example) operated
successfully on shoestring budgets before the imposition of a community
radio policy.

The licence entitles them to operate a 100-watt (ERP) radio station, with a
coverage area of approximately a 12-km radius. A maximum antenna height of
30 meters is allowed. Community radio stations are expected to produce at
least 50 percent of their programmes locally, as much as possible in the
local language or dialect. The stress is on developmental programming,
although there is no explicit ban on entertainment. News programmes are
banned on community radio in India (as they are on commercial FM radio).
However, the government recently clarified that certain categories of news
are permitted on radio, including sports news and commentaries, information
on traffic and weather conditions, coverage of cultural events and
festivals, information on academic events, public announcements pertaining
to utilities such as electricity and the water supply, disaster warnings
and health alerts.

Five minutes of advertising per hour is allowed on community radio.
Sponsored programs are not allowed, except when the program is sponsored by
the government at the local or state level.

Activists and community workers from across the country have banded
together under the aegis of the Community Radio Forum of India to
coordinate training and support for community radio stations, and to work
for a more proactive community radio policy. The Community Radio Forum,
India, was registered as a Society and Trust on 26 February 2008. In the
meantime, mobile telephone operators have begun to offer commercial
broadcast services over GSM, evading government restrictions built around
traditional concepts of broadcasting technology.

By 1 July 2010, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting announced that
715 applications for CR licenses had been received, including 104 under the
old campus-radio guidelines. 231 Letters of Intent were issued (including
63 under the old guidelines). Grant of Permission Agreements were signed
with 102 applicants, and 68 community radio stations were on the air. 107
applications were rejected, and 377 applications were being processed.

By 1 February 2012, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had
received a total of 991 community radio licence applications. Grant of
Permission Agreements had been signed with 161 applicants and 126 community
radio stations were on air.

>From April 1, 2012, the Ministry of Communications and IT has hiked the
spectrum fees to Rs. 91,000 - a fivefold increase from the previous annual
fee of Rs. 19,700. This move has provoked widespread protest from
functional community radio stations, advocacy bodies like Community Radio
Forum, and even the Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcast has
gone on record to say that his Ministry's views were not sought before the
decision was taken. He also expressed concern that many organizations would
find it impossible to pay the increased spectrum royalty charges. The
Community Radio Forum has already boycotted one policy consultation held by
the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, on 9th and 10 May. Several
community radio stations also observed a 'Day of Silence' on 9 May, where
the spectrum fee hike was announced, a protest song played, community views
were invited, and subsequently transmission was switched off for the rest
of the day.[16] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_radio#cite_note-16>[
17] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_radio#cite_note-17>[18]<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_radio#cite_note-18>

However after pressure from Ministries and NAC the govt waived off the
entire fees [19] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_radio#cite_note-19>
Content Exchange

Indian government has been promoting content exchange especially radio
programmes, good practices, case studies etc. to facilitate meaningful
utilisation of available resources.
 File:File:Edaa logo.png thumb This is the logo of EK Duniya anek awaaz
website, which is an audio and knowledge exchange portal for Community
Radio stations<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:File_Upload_Wizard?wpDestFile=File:Edaa_logo.png_thumb_This_is_the_logo_of_EK_Duniya_anek_awaaz_website,_which_is_an_audio_and_knowledge_exchange_portal_for_Community_Radio_stations>

In past two years, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has promoted EK
duniya anEK awaaz (Edaa) <http://www.edaa.in> - which is an audio and
knowledge exchange portal for Community Radio practitioners in South Asia.
Edaa is a web-based service that uploads the
radio stations. Listening to Bhojpuri or Tamil from villages that
appear even on Google maps, is such an exciting platform that even the
ministry mentions this in its press release on future plans for Community


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